Submitted: 31 Oct 2020
Accepted: 02 Nov 2020
ePublished: 17 Nov 2020
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Depiction of Health. 2020;11(4): 393-401.
doi: 10.34172/doh.2020.46
  Abstract View: 95
  PDF Download: 56

Epidemiology and the Burden of Diseases in Health Care System

Original Article

Occurrence of Congenital Anomalies in Iran and Implications of Osr-o-Haraj “Denegation of Intolerable Hardship Rule” in Shia Fiqh

saeed dastgiri 1* ORCID logo, Abdolhassan Kazemi 2 ORCID logo, Mohammad heidarzadeh 3 ORCID logo, Morteza Alian 4, Bahram Samadi 5 ORCID logo, Ali Seif-farshad 6, Foroogh Sadat Sayyah Melli 6, Hossein Mirzajanzadeh 6, Mariam Beigom Yasini 6

1 Tabriz Health Services Management Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2 Department of Medical Ethics. Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3 Neonatal Office, Ministry of Health, Tehran, Iran
4 Jurisprudential Researcher, Tehran, Iran
5 Research Centre of Iranian Legal Medicine Organization, Tehran, Iran
6 East Azarbaijan Legal Mecine Organization, Tabriz, Iran


Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to explain the examples of "the Jurisprudential Rule of “Osr o- Haraj" or Denegation of Intolerable Hardship in the occurrence of congenital anomalies and genetic disorders and show that according to the current laws of the country, more of these diseases can be prevented.
Material and Methods: Data for occurrence of congenital anomalies were derived from two major regional and national epidemiological studies based on 6,465,849 births in the country. A comprehensive review of literature was carried out on the details of ‘Denegation of Intolerable Hardship Rule. The details of medical termination of pregnancies diagnosed for congenital anomalies and the role of ‘Denegation of Intolerable Hardship’ principle in the prevention of birth defects were explored in several Focused Group Discussions formed by peditricians, geneticists, psychiatrists, neotatalogists and expert jurisprudents.
Results: The statistical estimates indicate that there are now nearly 100,000 births with one of the birth defects occurring every year in Iran. The total prevalence of the anomalies has more than tripled in the last 18 years.
Conclusion: The occurrence of congenital anomalies and genetic disorders will undermine the gene pool of the population if preventive measures are not properly implemented in the community genetics services to control those disorders. According to the current law on therapeutic abortion, disorders that lead to the hardships of father, mother, family, community, as well as future generations may be diagnosed by the three specialists (before the 16th week of pregnancy, the time of onsetting the soul). They can then be referred for medical abortion. A minimum of 70,000 birth defects may be avoided using the therapeutic termination of pregnancies diagnosed for congenital anomalies if the ‘no hardship and negation of distress and constriction’ principle is suitably explored in maternal, pediatric, neonatal settings and for public health authorities.

Keywords: Congenital Anomalies Birth Defects, Genetic Disorders, Prevention, Control Epidemiology, Negation of Distress and Constriction
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