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Depiction of Health. 2024;15(2): 174-190.
doi: 10.34172/doh.2024.14
  Abstract View: 146
  PDF Download: 55

Health Care System Management

Original Article

Structural Analysis of the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Work-Family Conflict with the Professional Development of Faculty Members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

Fahime Valizade Azar 1 ORCID logo, Hamdullah Habibi 2* ORCID logo, Behnam Talebi 1 ORCID logo

1 Department of Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran
2 Department of Education, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Email: Hamdullahhabibi@yahoo.com

Abstract

Background. Professional development and increasing the knowledge and skills of professors are necessary for the success of the efforts made in terms of improving educational systems. Meanwhile, psychological capital and reducing work-family conflict play a constructive role in achieving these goals. The current study aimed to investigate the potential correlation between psychological capital and work-family conflict and professional development among faculty members at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Methods. The current study employed a quantitative approach. The research method used was descriptive and correlational, utilizing structural equation modeling. The study focused on the faculty members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2022. According to the statistical resources, there were 793 faculty members at the university during the mentioned period. As per Morgan's table, the sample size consisted of 260 individuals. The instruments utilized to collect the required data were a professional development questionnaire of faculty members developed by Davarpanah (2018), Luthans et al.’s (2007) psychological capital questionnaire, and Carlson et al.’s (2000) work-family conflict questionnaire. To statistically analyze the research data, SPSS software (version 23) was first used to verify the normality of the studied variables. To calculate the correlation coefficients between them, AMOS version 23 was utilized.

Results. According to the correlation matrix table, there was a significant correlation between professional development and psychological capital. Also, there was an inverse and significant correlation between work-family conflict and psychological capital, and there was a non-significant correlation between professional development and work-family conflict. The psychological capital coefficient of influence on professional development was 0.61, and work-family conflict had a -0.11 impact factor on professional development. Therefore, it can be stated that psychological capital has a significant relationship with professional development and work-family conflict has an inverse and significant relationship with professional development. The measurement models fit well based on the results of confirmatory factor analysis and assessment indices. The Cronbach's alpha value was 0.951.

Conclusion. Based on the results of the current study, it is concluded that the psychological capital play a vital role in professional development of faculty members. Furthermore, work-family conflict may cause the negative and noteworthy consequences in association with professional development of faculty members.


Extended Abstract

Background

Today, the development of a scientific mission under the influence of changing in the field of higher education is of particular importance. If faculty members enjoy a desirable level of development, then we can expect to use other resources of the university and continually improve the quality in different universities.

Certainly, familiarity with the principles of teaching by faculty members from the faculties of medical sciences in the country is an effective factor contributing to the learning of students and the quality of medical services provided for patients. In other words, adequate and effective training, especially in the field of medical sciences, which deals with patients’ lives, can improve the quality of care services they receive and the health status of society.

Using new approaches in effective fields such as positive psychology, especially psychological capital, is necessary to improve the job performance of faculty members. As long as the members of the scientific board provide services of better quality, the development of the country will be accelerated. Among the various jobs in the health system, including faculty members from medical faculties, work-family conflict is inevitable. Regarding the importance of the development of faculty members, which is an empowering academic element, and facilitating the quality of the university, studying the development status of faculty members, identifying the factors affecting it, and trying to eliminate or strengthen them is necessary.

Methods

The current study employed a quantitative approach. The research method used was descriptive and correlational, utilizing structural equation modeling. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological capital and work-family conflict and the development of faculty members at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The population of the study consisted of all the faculty members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2022. The sample size consisted of 260 individuals, according to Morgan’s table. In this study, a stratified sampling method available was used. The instruments used for data collection were a professional development questionnaire of faculty members developed by Davarpanah (2018), Luthans, et al.’s (2007) questionnaire of psychological capital, and Carlson, et al.’s (2000) questionnaire of work-family conflict. In order to analyze the research hypotheses, the normality of the variables studied was checked, and the correlation coefficients between them were calculated through SPSS software (version 23). What is more, the structural equation modeling was calculated via AMOS version 23.

In this study, to analyze the statistical data, first the correlation coefficients between the variables were used to investigate their normality. In order to investigate normality and linearity, the same scattering from the normalized graph of variables on the basis of skewness and linear residuals was used. Also, the histogram showed that the scores were normally distributed to an acceptable extent. In AMOS software, criteria such as correlation matrix, convergent validity, composite reliability, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, mutual residual variance, and R-square were used to examine the goodness of fit of the tested model.

Results

In the study of the normality of the variables with the help of skewness and kurtosis, considering that all the components of the study had skewness and kurtosis in the interval (-2, 2), the assumption of normal distribution of the variables was confirmed. The histogram also shows the normality and linearity of the standardized regressions.

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between psychological capital and work-family conflict and professional development among faculty members at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. To begin with, the status of three variables of psychological capital, work-family conflict, and professional development among faculty members in the faculty of medical sciences of the university was studied using a one-sample t-test, and the results showed that the status of all the three variables among the faculty members was higher than average. Then, the main purpose of the study, namely, the relationship between psychological capital and work-family conflict and the development of faculty members at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, was investigated.

According to the correlation matrix, there was a significant correlation between professional development and psychological capital. Also, there was an inverse and significant correlation between work-family conflict and psychological capital. Meanwhile, there was a non-significant correlation between professional development and work-family conflict. According to the standard coefficients model of the study and the table of estimating coefficients of direct effects, the results obtained from the present study showed that the impact factor of psychological capital on professional development was 0.61 and the effect of work-family conflict on professional development was -0.11. Professional development status, psychological capital, and work-family conflict among the faculty members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were higher than average. The results of statistical hypotheses testing showed that psychological capital had a significant positive relationship with the professional development of faculty members. Also, there was a reverse and meaningful relationship between work-family conflict and the professional development of faculty members. According to the results of confirmatory factor analysis and evaluation indicators, the measurement patterns had an acceptable fit. Cronbach's alpha was 0.951

Conclusion

The present study analyzed the structural relationship between psychological capital and work-family conflict with the professional development of academic staff members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The results obtained from structural equation modeling showed the direct and significant effect of psychological capital on the professional development of faculty members and the inverse and significant effect of work-family conflict on the professional development of faculty members of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Our results also emphasized the importance of professional development of academic staff members of the university and the effective role of psychological capital in the professional development of academic staff, as well as the negative and noteworthy consequences of work-family conflict in the professional development of professors. It is suggested that the trustees and managers of the university take basic steps to develop the competences of the academic staff in a planned manner, provide the context for the development and promotion of the all-round competences of their academic staff and provide the necessary resources and credits for professional development programs. Also, they should try to stimulate the effective component of psychological capital in the academic staff and plan to improve this behavioral aspect of professors. Organizations should try to reduce the negative consequences of conflicts by teaching conflict coping methods such as conflict coping models, time management. Also, they should increase the commitment and effectiveness of academic staff and make their beneficiaries benefit from the services provided in a better way.

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Submitted: 30 Oct 2023
Revision: 16 Mar 2024
Accepted: 30 Apr 2024
ePublished: 29 May 2024
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